Costa Lab, ecology, physiology, and conservation of marine animals
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Dan Costa
Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCSC

Postdoctoral, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz
B.A., University of California, Los Angeles


The adaptations of marine mammals and seabirds to life in the marine environment, especially the movements, foraging ecology and energetics of pinnipeds and seabirds.

Villegas-Amtmann, S., Costa, D.P., Y Tremblay,Y., D Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Salazar, S. 2008. Multiple foraging strategies in a marine apex predator, the Galapagos Sea Lion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 363: 299–309. doi: 10.3354/meps07457.

Hoskins, A.J., Dann, P. Ropert-Coudert, Y. Kato, A., Chiaradia, A. Costa,D.P. Arnould, J.P.Y. 2008. Foraging behaviour and habitat selection of the little penguin (Eudyptula minor) during early chick rearing. Marine Ecology Progress Series in press.

Charrassin, J.-B., M. Hindell, S. R. Rintoul, F. Roquet, S. Sokolov, M. Biuw, D. Costa, L. Boehme, P. Lovell, R. Coleman, R. Timmermann, A. Meijers, M. Meredith, Y.-H. Park, F. Bailleul, M. Goebel, Y. Tremblay, C.-A. Bost, C. R. McMahon, I. C. Field, M. A. Fedak, and C. Guinet. 2008. Southern Ocean frontal structure and sea-ice formation rates revealed by elephant seals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:11634-11639.

Zeno, R. L., Crocker, D.E., Hassrick, D.L., Allen, S.G. & Costa, D.P. 2008. Development of foraging behavior in juvenile northern elephant seals. Journal of Zoology 274:180–187.

Costa, D. P., J. M. Klinck, E. E. Hofmann, M. S. Dinniman, and J. M. Burns. 2008. Upper ocean variability in West Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf waters as measured using instrumented seals. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 55(3-4): 323-337.

Hofmann, E. E., P. H. Wiebe, D. P. Costa, and J. J. Torres. 2008. Introduction to Dynamics of plankton, krill, and predators in relation to environmental features of the western Antarctic Peninsula and related areas: SO GLOBEC Part II. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 55(3-4):269-270.

Burns, J.M., Hindell, M.A., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Costa, D.P. 2008. Fine-scale habitat selection of crabeater seals as determined by diving behavior. Deep Sea Research II. 55(3-4):500-514.

McDonald, B.I., Crocker, D.E., Burns, J.M. and Costa, D.P. 2008. Indication of winter foraging success in crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) using measures of body composition. Deep Sea Research II 55(3-4):512-522.

Costa, D.P. A model of the Variation in Parental Attendance in Response to Environmental Fluctuation: Foraging Energetics of Lactating Sea lions and Fur Seals. 2008. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17:S44-S52.

Simmons, S.E., Crocker, D.E., Kudela, R.M., Costa, D.P. 2007. Linking Foraging Behaviour of the Northern Elephant seal with Oceanography and Bathymetry at Mesoscales. Marine Ecology Progress Series: 346:265-275.

Miles, D. B., B. Sinervo, L. C. Hazard, E. I. Svensson, and D. Costa. 2007. Relating endocrinology, physiology and behaviour using species with alternative mating strategies. Functional Ecology 21:653-665.

Biuw, M., Boehme, L., Guinet, C., Hindell, M., Costa, D., Charrassin, J.B., Roquet, F., Bailleul, F., Meredith, M., Thorpe, S., Tremblay, T., McDonald, B., Park,Y.H., Rintoul, S., Bindoff, N., Goebel, M.E., Crocker, D., Lovell, P., Nicholson, J., Monks F. and Fedak, M.A. 2007. Variations in behaviour and condition of a Southern Ocean top predator in relation to in-situ oceanographic conditions. Proceedings National Academy of Science 104:13705-13710

Fowler, S. L. Costa, D. P. Arnould, J. P.Y. Gales, N. J. and Burns J. M. 2007. Ontogeny of oxygen stores and physiological diving capability in Australian sea lions. Functional Ecology 21:922-935.

Hassrick, J.L., Crocker, D.E., Zeno, R.L., Blackwell, S.B., Costa, D.P. and Le Boeuf, B.J. 2007. Swimming Speed and Foraging Strategies of Northern Elephant Seals. Deep Sea Research II 54:369-383.

Robinson, P.W, Tremblay, Y., Antolos, M., Crocker, D.E. Kuhn, C.E., Shaffer S.A., Simmons, S., Costa, D.P. 2007. A comparison of indirect measures of foraging behavior based on ARGOS tracking data. Deep Sea Research II 54:356-368.

Fowler, S. L., Costa, D.P., J.A.Y. Arnould. 2007. Ontogeny of movements and foraging ranges in the Australian sea lion. Marine Mammal Science 23:598-614.

Tinker, M.T, Costa, D.P., Estes, J.A., Wieringa, N. 2007. Individual dietary specialization and dive behavior in the California sea otter: using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies. Deep Sea Research II 54:330-342.

Costa, D.P. 2007. Seals and Sea Lions. in Encyclopedia of Tidepools Ed University of California Press. Berkeley.

Tremblay, Y., Roberts, A.J. and Costa, D.P. 2007. Fractal landscape method: an alternative approach to measuring area-restricted searching behavior Journal of Experimental Biology 210:935-945.

Sato, K., Y. Watanuki, A. Takahashi, P. Miller, H. Tanaka, R. Kawabe, P. Ponganis, Y. Handrich, T. Akamatsu, Y. Watanabe, Y. Mitani, D. Costa, C. Bost, K. Aoki, M. Amano, P. Trathan, A. Shapiro, and Y. Naito. 2007. Stroke frequency, but not swimming speed, is related to body size in free-ranging seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274:471-477.

Weise, M. J., D. P. Costa, and R. M. Kudela. 2006. Movement and diving behavior of male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during anomalous oceanographic conditions of 2005 compared to those of 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L22S10, doi:10.1029/2006GL027113

Lester, C.W. and Costa, D.P. 2006. Water conservation in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal Experimental Biology 209:4283-94.

Kuhn, C.E. and Costa, D.P. 2006. Identifying and quantifying prey consumption using stomach temperature change: a comparison between a seal and sea lion species. Journal Experimental Biology 209:4524-4532.

Shaffer, S.A. Tremblay, Y. Weimerskirch, H., Scott, D., Thompson, D.R. Sagar, P.M., Moller, H., Taylor, G.A., Foley, G.A., Block, B.A., and Costa, D.P. 2006. Endless Summer: Migratory Shearwaters Integrate Oceanic Resources Across The Pacific Ocean. Proceedings National Academy Sciences 103:12799-802

Hayes, S.A., Pearse, D.E., Costa, D.P., Harvey, J.T., Le Boeuf, B.J. Garza, J.C. 2006. Mating system and reproductive success in eastern Pacific Harbour seals. Molecular Ecology 15(10):3023-3034

Crocker, D.E., Costa, D.P., Le Boeuf, B.J., Webb, P.M., and Houser, D.S. 2006. Impact of El Niño on the foraging behavior of female northern elephant seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309:1-10.

Shaffer, S.A., Gabrielsen, G.W., Verreault, J. and Costa, D.P. 2006. Validation of Water Flux and Body Composition in Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79(4):836-845.

Costa, D.P. 2006. Elephant seals. World Book Encyclopedia.

Costa, D.P. 2006. The Physiology of Diving. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0004230. Pages 1-7

Kuhn, C.E, Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Costa, D.P. 2006. Oxygen Stores of California sea lion pups: Implications for diving. Symposium Volume Sea Lions of the World, Univ of Alaska Press. Univ of Alaska Press. Alaska Sea Grant College Program • AK-SG-06-01, 2006. Pages 1-13.

Arnould, J.P.Y. and Costa, D.P. 2006. Sea lions in drag, fur seals incognito: insights from the otariid deviants. Symposium Volume Sea Lions of the World, Univ of Alaska Press. Alaska Sea Grant College Program • AK-SG-06-01, 2006. Pages 111-125.

Costa, D.P., Weise, M.J. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2006. Worldwide Pinniped Population Status and Trends in Whales, whaling and ocean ecosystems ed Estes, J.A. Williams, T.M., Doak, D. and DeMaster, D. University of California Press Berkeley, CA

Burns, J.M., Costa, D.P., Frost, K. and Harvey, J.T. 2005. Development of body oxygen stores in harbor seals: effects of age, mass, and body composition. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78(6):1057-1068.

Shaffer. S.A. and Costa, D.P. 2006. A Database for the Study of Marine Mammal Behavior: Gap Analysis, Data Standardization, and Future Directions. IEEE Journal of Ocean Engineering Vol 31(1):82-86.

Kuhn, C.E., McDonald, B.I., Shaffer, S.A., Barnes J., Crocker, D.E., Burns, JM, Costa, D.P. 2006. Diving physiology and winter foraging behavior of a juvenile leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx). Polar Biology 29:303-307.

Fowler, S.L., Costa, D.P., Arnould, J.P.Y., Gales, N.J. and Kuhn, C.E. 2006. Ontogeny of Diving Behaviour in the Australian sea lion: Trials of Adolescence in a Late Bloomer. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:358-367.

Tremblay Y, Shaffer S.A., Fowler S.L., Kuhn C.E., McDonald B.I., Weise, M.J., Bost C-A, Weimerskirch H, Crocker DE, Goebel ME, Costa D.P. 2006. Interpolation of animal tracking data in a fluid environment. Journal Experimental Biology 209:128-140.

Thornton, S.J., Hochachka, P.W., Crocker, D.E., Costa, D.P., Leboeuf, B.J., Spielman, D.M., Pelc, N.J. 2005. Stroke volume and cardiac output in juvenile elephant seals during forced dives. Journal Experimental Biology 208:3637-43

Shaffer, S.A., Tremblay, Y., Awkerman, J.A., Henry, W., Teo, S.L., Anderson, D.J., Croll, D.A. Block, B.A., Costa, D.P. 2005. Comparison of light- and SST-based geolocation with satellite telemetry in free-ranging albatrosses. Marine Biology 147:833–843.

Gales, N., Barnes, J., Chittick, B., Gray, M., Robinson, S., Burns, J., and Costa, D. 2005. Effective, field-based inhalation anesthesia for ice seals. Marine Mammal Science 21:717-727.

Debier, C., Ylitalo, G.M. Weise, M.A. Gulland, F., Costa, D.P., Le Boeuf, B.J. de Tillesse, T. Larondelle, Y. 2005. PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones. Environmental Pollution 134:323–332.

Costa, D.P., Kuhn, C.E., Weise, M.J., Shaffer, S.A. Arnould, J.P. 2004. When does physiology limit the foraging behaviour of freely diving mammals? International Congress Series 1275:359– 366.

Burns, J. M., Costa, D. P., Fedak, M. A., Hindell, M.A., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Gales, N.J. McDonald, B., Trumble, S.J., Crocker, D.E. 2004. Winter habitat use and foraging behavior of crabeater seals along the Western Antarctic Peninsula Deep-Sea Research II 51:2279–2303.

Rutishauser, M.R., Costa, D P., Goebel, M. E., Mangel, M. and Williams, T. M.. 2004. Ecological implications of body composition and thermoregulatory capabilities in young Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77(4):669-681.

Gales, N.J., Fraser, W.R., Costa, D. P, Southwell, C. 2004. Do crabeater seals forage cooperatively? Deep-Sea Research II 51: 2305–2310.

Hofmann, E. E., Wiebe, P.H., Costa, D.P., Torres, J.J. 2004. An overview of the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics program. Deep-Sea Research II 51:1921–1924.

Shaffer, S. A., Costa, D. P. and Weimerskirch, H. 2004. Field metabolic rates of blackbrowed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophrys during the incubation stage. Journal Avian Biology 35:551-558.

Hayes, S.A., Costa, D.P. Harvey, J.T., Le Boeuf, B.J. 2004. Aquatic Mating Strategies of the Male Pacific Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii): Are Males Defending the Hotspot? Marine Mammal Science, 20(3):639–656.

Hayes, S. A., Kumar, A., Costa, D. P., Mellinger, D. K., Harvey, J. T., Southall, B. L. and Le Boeuf, B. J. 2004. Evaluating the function of the male harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, roar through playback experiments. Animal Behaviour 67:1133-1139.

Robson, B. W., Goebel, ME., Baker, J.D., Ream, R.R., Loughlin, T.R., Francis, T.C., Antonelis, G.A., and Costa, D.P. 2004. Separation of foraging habitat among breeding sites of a colonial marine predator, the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 20–29.

Miller, N.J., Daniels, C.B., Costa, D.P. and Orgeig, S. 2004. Control of pulmonary surfactant in adult California sea lions. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 313:737-742.

Mabille, G., Boutard, O., Shaffer, S. A., Costa, D. P. and Weimerskirch, H. 2004. Growth and energy expenditure of Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans Chicks. Ibis 146:85–94.

Costa, D.P. and Sinervo, B. 2004. Field physiology: Physiological insights from animals in nature. Annual Reviews of Physiology 66:23.1–23.30

BirdLife International (2004). Tracking ocean wanderers: the global distribution of albatrosses and petrels. Results from the Global Procellariiform Tracking Workshop, 1–5 September, 2003, Gordon’s Bay, South Africa. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

Houser, D., Crocker D.E. and Costa D.P. 2004. Ecology of Water Relations and Thermoregulation. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. McMillian Press, London.

Arnould, J. P., Luque, S. P., Guinet, C., Costa, D. P., Kingston, J., and Shaffer, S.A. 2003. The comparative energetics and growth strategies of sympatric Antarctic and subantarctic fur seal pups at Iles Crozet. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:4497-4506.

Shaffer, S. A., Costa, D.P., and Weimerskirch, H. 2003. Foraging effort in relation to the constraints of reproduction in free-ranging albatrosses. Functional Ecology 17:66-74.

Noren, D.P, Crocker, D. E., Williams, T. M., and Costa, D. P. 2003. Energy reserve utilization in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups during the postweaning fast: size does matter. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 173:443-454.

Houser, D.S. and Costa, D.P. 2003. Entrance into stage III fasting by starveling northern elephant seal pups. Marine Mammal Science 19(1):186-197.

Costa, D.P., Crocker, D.E., Gedamke, J., Webb, P.M., Houser, D.S., Blackwell, S.B. Waples, D., Hayes, S.A. and LeBoeuf, B.J. 2003. The effect of a low-frequency sound source (acoustic thermometry of the ocean climate) on the diving behavior of juvenile northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal Acoustical Society of America 113(2):1155-1165.

Fish, F.E., Hurley, J. and Costa, D.P. 2003. Maneuverability by the sea lion Zalophus californianus: turning performance of an unstable body design. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:667-674.

Costa, D.P. and Gales, N.J. 2003. The energetics of a benthic diver: Seasonal foraging ecology of the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea. Ecological Monographs 73(1): 27–43.

Block, B.A., Costa, D.P., Boehlert, G.W. and Kochevar, R. 2002. Revealing pelagic habitat use: the tagging of Pacific pelagics program. Oceanologica Acta 25:255-266.

Hofmann, E.E., Klinck, J.M, Costa, D.P. Daly, K.L., Torres, J.J. and Fraser, W.R. 2002. U.S. Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics Program. Oceanography 15( 2):64-74.

Boehlert, G.W., Green-Jesse, P., Costa, D.P., Crocker, D. E, O’Brien, T. and Levitus, S. 2002. Marine animals as oceanographic data collectors. Earth System Monitor 12(4):1-4.

Ortiz, R.M.,Wade, W.E., Costa, D.P. and Ortiz, C.L. 2002. Renal responses to plasma volume expansion and hyperosmolality in fasting seal pups. American Journal of Physiology Regulatory Integrative Comparative Physiology 282: R805–R817.

Ortiz, R.M., Wade, C.E., Costa, D.P. and Ortiz, C.L. 2002. Renal effects of fresh water-induced hypo-osmolality in a marine adapted seal. Journal Comparative Physiology [B] 172:297-307.

Donohue, M., Goebel, M.E, Baker, J.D., Antonelis, G.A. and Costa, D.P. 2002. Milk intake and energy expenditure of free-ranging northern fur seal pups. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 75(1):3–18.

Crocker, D.E., Williams, J.D., Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 2001. The effects of maternal mass, body composition, and age on reproductive effort in northern elephant seals. Ecology 82(12):3541-3555.

Hurley, J.A., and Costa, D.P. 2001. Hypometabolism during diving in trained adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Experimental Biology 204:3273-3281.

Boehlert, G.W., Costa, D.P., Crocker D.E., Green, P., O’Brien, T., Levitus, S., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 2001. Autonomous Pinniped Environmental Samplers (APES): Using instrumented animals as oceanographic data collectors. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 18:1882-1893.

Shaffer, S.A., Costa, D.P. and Weimerskirch, H. 2001. Comparison of methods for evaluating energy expenditure of incubating wandering albatrosses. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74(6):823-831.

Thornton, S.J., Spielman, D.M., Pelc, N.J., Block, W.F. Crocker, D.E., Costa, D.P., LeBoeuf, B.J. and Hochachka, P.W. 2001. Effects of forced diving on the spleen and hepatic sinus in northern elephant seal pups. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 98(16):9413-9418.

Gedamke, J., Costa, D.P. and Dunstan, A. 2001. Localization and visual verification of a complex minke whale vocalization. Journal Acoustical Society of America 109:3038-3047.

Costa, D.P. Gales, N.J. and Goebel, M.E. 2001. Aerobic dive limit: how often does it occur in nature? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 129A:771-783.

Shaffer, S.A., Costa, D.P. and Weimerskirch, H. 2001. Behavioural factors affecting foraging effort of breeding wandering albatrosses. Journal of Animal Ecology 70:864-874.

Houser, D.S., Crocker, D.E., Webb, P.M. and Costa, D.P. 2001 Renal function in suckling and fasting pups of the northern elephant seal. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 129A:405-415.

Shaffer, S.A., Weimerskirch, H. and Costa, D.P. 2001. Functional significance of sexual dimorphism in Wandering Albatrosses, Diomedea exulans. Functional Ecology 15:203-210.

Crocker, D.E., Gales, N.J. and Costa, D.P. 2001. Swimming speed and foraging strategies of New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri. Journal of Zoology 254:267-277.

Costa, D.P. and Hayes, S.A. 2001. Underwater sound and marine mammals. In: Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw Hill: New York; pp. 405-407.

Costa, D.P. 2001. Osmoregulation. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. W.F. Perrin, J.G.M. Thewissen and B. Wursig, eds. Academic Press. pp. 337-342.

Costa D.P. 2001. Energetics. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. W.F. Perrin, J.G.M. Thewissen and B. Wursig, eds. Academic Press. pp. 387-394.

Crocker, D.E. and Costa D.P. 2001. Pinniped physiology. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. W.F. Perrin, J.G.M. Thewissen and B. Wursig, eds. Academic Press. pp. 934-939.

Costa, D.P. Goebel, M.E. and Sterling, J.E. 2000. Foraging energetics and diving behavior of the Antarctic fur seal. Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island. In: Antarctic Ecosystems: Models for Wider Ecological Understanding. W. Davisons, C. Howard-Williams, and P. Broady, eds. New Zealand Natural Sciences Press: Christchurch New Zealand; pp. 77-84.

Goebel, M.E., Costa, D.P., Crocker, D.E. Sterling, J.E. and Demer, D.A. 2000. Foraging ranges and dive patterns in relation to bathymetry and time-of-day of Antarctic fur seals, Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island Antarctica. In: Antarctic Ecosystems: Models for Wider Ecological Understanding. W. Davisons, C. Howard-Williams, and P. Broady, eds. New Zealand Natural Sciences Press: Christchurch New Zealand: pp. 47-50.

Costa, D.P., and Williams, T.M. 2000. Marine mammal energetics. In: The Biology of Marine Mammals, J. Reynolds and J. Twiss, eds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC; pp. 176-217.

Costa, D.P. and Gales, N.J. 2000. Foraging energetics and diving behavior of lactating New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri. Journal of Experimental Biology 203:3655-3665.

LeBoeuf, B.J., Crocker, D.E., Grayson, J., Gedamke, J., Webb, J.M., Blackwell, S.B. and Costa, D.P. 2000. Respiration and heart rate at the surface between dives in northern elephant seals. Journal Experimental Biology 203:3265-3274.

Weimerskirch, H., Guionnet, T., Martin, J., Shaffer, S.A. and Costa, D.P. 2000. Fast and fuel efficient? Optimal use of wind by flying albatrosses. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 267:1869-1874.

Andrews, R.D., Costa, D.P., LeBoeuf, B.J., and Jones, D.R. 2000. Breathing frequencies of northern elephant seals at sea and on land revealed by heart rate spectral analysis. Respiration Physiology 123:71-85.

Golet, G.H., Irons, D.B. and Costa, D.P. 2000. Energy costs of chick rearing in Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:982-991.

Donohue, M.J., Costa, D.P., Goebel, M.E. and Baker. J.D. 2000. The ontogeny of metabolic rate and thermoregulatory capabilities of northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, pups in air and water. Journal of Experimental Biology 203:1003-1016.

Hayes, S.A., Mellinger D.K., Croll, D.E. and Costa, D.P. 2000. An inexpensive passive acoustic system for recording and localizing wild animal sounds. Journal Acoustical Society of America 107(6):3552- 3555.

Costa, D.P. and Crocker, D.E. 1999. Whales and porpoises. In: Encyclopedia of Reproduction Vol. 4. Academic Press: New York; pp. 1015-1020.

Costa, D.P. and Crocker, D.E. 1999. Seals. In: Encyclopedia of Reproduction Vol. 4. Academic Press: New York; pp. 313-321.

Costa, D.P. 1999. Recollections of Kenneth S. Norris: Graduate students of Kenneth S. Norris. Marine Mammal Science 15(4):645-946.

Costa, D.P. and Perrin, W.F. 1999. Recollections of Kenneth S. Norris: Bibliography. Marine Mammal Science 15(4):947-955.

LeBoeuf, B.J., Crocker, D.E., Costa, D.P., Blackwell, S.B., Webb, P.M. and Houser, D.S. 1999. Foraging ecology of northern elephant seals. Ecological Monographs 70(3):353-382.

Wells, R.S., Rhinehart, H.L., Cunningham, P., Whaley, J., Baran., M, Koberna, C. and Costa, D.P. 1999. Long distance offshore movements of bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mammal Science 15(4):1098-1114.

Colosi, J. A., A. B. Baggeroer, T. G. Birdsall, C. Clark, B. D. Cornuelle, D. Costa, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, A. M. G. Forbes, B. M. Howe, D. Menemenlis, J. A. Mercer, K. Metzger, W. Munk, and et al. 1999. A Review of Recent Results on Ocean Acoustic Wave Propagation in Random Media: Basin Scales. IEEE 24:138-155.

Dushaw, B.D.; Howe, B.M.; Mercer, J.A.; Spindel, R.C.; Baggeroer, A.B.; Menemenlis, D.; Wunsch, C.; Birdsall, T.G.; Metzger, K.; Clark, C.; Colosi, J.A.; Comuelle, B.D.; Dzieciuch, M.; Munk, W.; Worcester, P.F.; Costa, D.; Forbes, A.M.G.; 1999. Multimegameter-range acoustic data obtained by bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays for measurement of ocean temperature. Journal of Oceanic Engineering 24(2):202 – 214

Blackwell, S.B., Haverl, C.A., LeBoeuf, B.J. and Costa, D.P. 1999. A method for calibrating swim speed recorders. Marine Mammal Science 15(3):894-905.

Costa, D.P. 1999. The role of physiology in the behavior of diving mammals: Insights from animals in nature. European Undersea Baromedical Society Proceedings of 25th Annual Meeting. Page 233-239.

Costa, D.P. et. al., of The ATOC Consortium. 1998. Ocean climate change: Comparison of acoustic tomography, satellite altimetry, and modeling. Science 281:1327-1332.

Burgess, W., Tyack, P., LeBoeuf, B.J., and Costa, D.P. 1998. A programmable acoustic recording tag and first results from free-ranging northern elephant seals. Deep Sea Research II 45:1327-1351.

Crocker, D.E., Webb, P., Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1998. Protein catabolism and renal function in lactating northern elephant seals. Physiological Zoology 71(5) 485-491.

Shaffer, S.A., Costa, D.P., Williams, T.M, and Ridgway, S.H. 1998. Diving and swimming performance of White Whales, Delphinapterus leucas: an assessment of plasma lactate and blood gas levels and respiratory rates. Journal Experimental Biology 200:3091-3099.

Costa, D.P., Gales, N.J. and Crocker, D.E. 1998. Blood volume and diving ability of the New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri. Physiological Zoology 71:208-213.

Webb, P.M., Andrews, R.D., Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1998. Heart rate and oxygen consumption of northern elephant seals during diving in the laboratory. Physiological Zoology 71:116-125.

Webb, P.N., Crocker, D.E., Blackwell, S.B., Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. Effects of buoyancy on the diving behavior of northern elephant seals. 1998. Journal of Experimental Biology 201:2349-2358.

Mattlin, R.H., Gales, N.J., and Costa, D.P. 1998. Seasonal dive behaviour of lactating New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri). Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:350-360.

Costa, D.P., Crocker, D.E., Waples, D.M., Webb, P.M., Gedamke, J., Houser, D., Goley, P.D., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1997. The California Marine Mammal Research Program of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Experiment: Potential effects of low frequency sound on distribution and behavior of marine mammals. California and the World Oceans Symposium Volume.

Gales, N.J. and Costa, D.P. 1997. The Australian sea lion: a review of an unusual life history In: Marine Mammal Research in the Southern Hemisphere Volume 1: Status, Ecology and Medicine. M. Hindell and C. Kemper, eds. Surrey and Sons: Chipping Norton, Australia; pp. 78-87.

Costa, D.P. 1997. Seal. In: The World Book Encyclopedia, World Book Publishing: Chicago, pp. 265-268.

Andrews, R.D., Jones, D.R., Williams, J.D., Thorson, P.H., Oliver, G.W., Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1997. Heart rates of northern elephant seals diving at sea and resting on the beach. Journal of Experimental Biology 200(15):2083-2095.

Kretzmann, M.B., Gilmartin, W.B, Meyer, A., Zegers, G.P., Fain, S.R., Taylor, B.F., and Costa, D.P. 1997. Low genetic variability in the Hawaiian monk seal. Conservation Biology 11:482-490.

Milsom, W., Castellini, M., Harris, M., Castellini, J., Jones, D., Berger, R., Bahrma, S., Rea, L., and Costa, D. 1996. Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on patterns of sleep-associated apnea in elephant seal pups. American Journal of Physiology 271:R1017-R1024.

Gales, N.J., Costa, D.P. and Kretzmann M.B. 1996. Proximate composition of Australian sea lion milk throughout the entire supra-annual lactation period. Australian Journal of Zoology 44:651-657.

Crocker, D.E., LeBoeuf, B.J., and Costa, D.P. 1996. Drift diving in female northern elephant seals: Implications for food processing. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:27-39.

Fletcher, S., LeBoeuf, B.J., Costa, D.P., and Tyack, P.L. 1996. Onboard acoustic recording from diving elephant seals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100(4):2531-2539.

LeBoeuf, B.J., Morris, P.A., Blackwell, S.B., Crocker, D.E., and Costa, D.P. 1996. Diving behavior of juvenile northern elephant seals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:1632-1644.

Puppione, D.L. Kluehthau, C.M., Jandacek, R.J. and Costa, D.P. 1996. Chylomicron triacylglycerol fatty acids suckling northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) resemble the composition and the distribution of fatty acids in milk fat. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 114B(1):53-57.

Ortiz, R., Adams, S.H., Costa, D.P., and Ortiz, C.L. 1996. Plasma vasopressin levels and water conservation in fasting, post-weaned northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). Marine Mammal Science 12(1):99-106.

Costa, D.P., and Crocker, D.E. 1996. Marine Mammals of the Southern Ocean. In: Foundations for Ecological Research in the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region. Eds. R. Ross, E. Hofmann, and L. Quentin. American Geophysical Union. vol. 70, pp. 287-301.

Davis, T.A., Nguyen, H.V., Costa, D.P. and Reeds, P.J. 1995. Amino acid composition of pinniped milk. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 110B (3):633-639.

Udevitz, M.S., Bodkin, J.L. and Costa, D.P. 1995. Detection of sea otters in boat-based surveys of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 11(1):59-71.

Crocker, D.E., LeBoeuf, B.J., Naito, Y., Asaga, T. and Costa, D.P. 1994. Swim speed and dive function in a female Northern Elephant Seal. In: The Biology of Elephant Seals. B.J. Le Boeuf and R.M. Laws, eds. UC Press: Berkeley; pp. 328-342.

Deutsch, C.J., Crocker, D.E., Costa, D.P., LeBoeuf, B.J. 1994. Sex and age-related variation in reproductive effort of the Northern Elephant Seal. In: Elephant Seals: Population Biology, Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. B.J. Le Boeuf and R.M. Laws, eds. UC Press: Berkeley; pp. 169-210.

Castellini, M.A., Milsom, W., Berger, R., Costa, D.P., Jones, D., Castellini, J., Rea, L., Bahrma, S., and Harris, M. 1994. Patterns of respiration and heart rate during wakefulness and sleep in elephant seal pups. American Journal of Physiology 266:R863-R869.

Costa, D.P. 1993. The relationship between reproductive and foraging energetics and the evolution of the Pinnipedia. Symposium Zoological Society of London, Oxford University Press. 66:293-314.

Costa, D.P. 1993. The secret life of marine mammals: Novel tools studying of their behavior and biology at sea. Oceanography 6(3):120-128.

Anderson, S.A., Costa, D.P., and Fedak, M.A. 1993. Bioenergetics. In: Antarctic Pinnipeds: Research Methods and Techniques. R. Laws, ed. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England; pp. 291-315.

Kretzmann, M.B, Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1993. Maternal energy investment in elephant seal pups: evidence for sexual equality. American Naturalist 141:466-480.

Adams, S.H. and Costa, D.P. 1993. Water conservation and protein metabolism in northern elephant seal pups during the postweaning fast. Journal of Comparative Physiology 163:367-373.

Adams, S.H., Costa, D.P., and Winter, S.C. 1992. Plasma carnitine in fasting neonatal and adult northern elephant seals. American Journal of Physiology 263:E570-E574.

Bacon, C.E., Jarman, W.M., and Costa, D.P. 1992. Organochlorine and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in pinniped milk from the Arctic, Antarctica, California and Australia. Chemosphere 24:779-791.

Puppione, D.A., Jandacek, R. and Costa, D.P. 1992. Positional analyses of triacylglycerol fatty acids in the milk fat of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). Lipids 27:637-639.

Castellini, M.A., Costa, D.P., and Castellini, M. 1992. Blood glucose distribution, brain size and diving in small odontocetes. Marine Mammal Science 8:294-298.

LeBoeuf, B.J., Naito, Y., Asaga, T., Crocker, D., and Costa, D.P. 1992. Swim speed in a female northern elephant seal: Metabolic and foraging implications. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:786-795.

Worthy, G.A.J., Morris, P.A., Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1992. Moult energetics of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Zoology 227:257-265.

Rea, L., and Costa, D.P. 1992. Changes in standard metabolism during long-term fasting in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). Physiological Zoology 65:97-111.

Kretzmann, M.B, Costa, D.P., Higgins, L.V., and Needham, D.J. 1991. Milk composition of Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea: variability in lipid content. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2556-2561.

Costa, D.P. 1991. Reproductive and foraging energetics of high latitude penguins, albatrosses and pinnipeds: Implications for life history patterns. American Zoologist 31(1):111-130.

Costa, D.P., Antonellis, G.P., and De Long, R. 1991. Effects of El Niño on the foraging energetics of the California sea lion. In: Effects of El Niño on Pinnipeds. F. Trillmich and K. Ono, eds., Springer Verlag: Berlin; pp. 157-165.

Trillmich, F., Ono, K., Costa, D.P., De Long, R.L., Feldkamp, S., Francis, J., Gentry, R.L., Heath, C., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1991 The effects of El Niño on pinniped populations in the Eastern Pacific. In: Effects of El Niño on Pinnipeds. F. Trillmich and K. Ono, eds. Springer Verlag: Berlin; pp. 247-270.

Costa, D.P. 1991. Reproductive and foraging energetics of pinnipeds: Implications for life history patterns. In: Pinniped Behaviour, D. Renouf, ed. Chapman Hall (ITP): Florence, Kentucky; pp. 301-344. Castellini, M.A. and Costa, D.P. 1990. Relationship between plasma ketones and fasting duration in neonatal elephant seals. American Journal of Physiology 259:R1086-R1089.

Wickham, L.L., Costa, D.P., and Elsner, R. 1990. Blood rheology of captive and wild sea otters and elephant seals: Acclimatization? Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:375-380.

Fadely, B.S., Worthy, G.A.J., and Costa, D.P. 1990. Assimilation efficiency of marine mammals determined using dietary manganese. Journal of Wildlife Management 54:246-251.

Pernia, S.D., Costa, D.P., and Ortiz, C.L. 1989. Glomerular filtration rate in weaned elephant seal pups during natural, long term fasts. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:1752-1756.

Feldkamp, S.D., Costa, D.P., and Dekrey. G.K. 1989. Energetic and behavioral effects of net entanglement on juvenile northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus. Fishery Bulletin 87:85-94.

Costa, D.P., Croxall. J.P., and Duck, C. 1989. Foraging Energetics of Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, in relation to changes in prey availability. Ecology 70:596-606.

Costa, D.P., Trillmich, F., and Croxall, J.P. 1988. Intraspecific allometry of neonatal size in the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 22:361-64.

Costa, D.P. 1988. Methods for studying the energetics of freely diving animals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:45-52.

Costa, D.P. and Trillmich, F. 1988. Mass changes and metabolism during the perinatal fast: a comparison between Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Galapagos fur seals (A. galapagoensis). Physiological Zoology 61(2):160-169.

LeBoeuf, B.J., Costa, D.P., Huntley, A.C., and Feldkamp, S.D. 1988. Continuous, deep diving in female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Canadian Journal of Zoology 446-458.

Higgins, L.V., Costa, D.P., Huntley, A.C. and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1988. Behavioral and physiological measurements of maternal investment in the Steller sea lion, Eumatopias jubatus. Journal of Marine Mammal Science 4(1):44-58.

Castellini, M.A., Costa, D.P., and Huntley, A.C. 1987. Fatty acid metabolism during extreme fasting: turnover values in elephant seal pups. Journal of Comparative Physiology 157B:445-448.

Puppione, D.L., Corash, L., Kunitake, D.T., Smith, D.L., and Costa, D.P. 1987. Pinnipeds: animals models for studying the effects of dietary fats on lipoproteins and platelets. Pages 352-357 In: Proceedings of the AOCS Short Course on Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids W.E.M. Lands ed. American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign IL.

Costa, D.P. and Prince, P.A. 1987. Foraging energetics of Grey-Headed Albatrosses Diomedea chrysostoma at Bird Island, South Georgia. Ibis 129:149-158.

Huntley, A.C., Costa, D.P., Worthy, G.A.J., and Castellini, M.A. 1987. Approaches to Marine Mammal Energetics. Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas; 253 pp.

Costa, D.P. 1987. Isotopic methods for quantifying material and energy intake of free-ranging marine mammals. In: Approaches to Marine Mammal Energetics. A.C. Huntley, D.P. Costa, G.A.J. Worthy and M.A. Castellini, eds. Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas; pp. 43-66.

Costa, D.P. and Gentry, R.L. 1986. Ch. 5. Free-ranging energetics of northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus. In: Fur Seals: Maternal Strategies on Land and at Sea. R.L. Gentry and G.L. Kooyman, eds. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey; pp. 79-101.

Gentry, R.L., Costa, D.P., Croxall, J.P., David, J.H.M., Davis, R.W., Kooyman, G.L., Majluf, P., McCann, T.S., and Trillmich, F. 1986. Ch.15 Synthesis and conclusions. In: Fur Seals: Maternal Strategies on Land and at Sea. R.L. Gentry and G.L. Kooyman eds., Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey; pp. 220-264.

Castellini, M.A., Costa, D.P., and Huntley, A.C. 1986. Hematocrit variation during sleep apnea in elephant seal pups. American Journal Physiology 251:R429-431.

Costa, D.P., Dann, P., and Disher, W. 1986. Energy requirements of free-ranging Little Penguin, Eudyptula minor. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 85A:135-8.

Faurot, E., Costa, D.P., and Ames, J.A. 1986. Analysis of Sea Otter, Enhydra lutris scats collected from a California haul out site. Marine Mammal Science 2(3):223-227.

Costa, D.P., LeBoeuf, B.J., Ortiz, C.L., and Huntley, A.C. 1986. Energetics of lactation in the Northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of Zoology 209:21-33.

LeBoeuf, B.J., Costa, D.P., Huntley, A.C., Kooyman, G.L., and Davis, R.W. 1986. Pattern and depth of dives in Northern Elephant Seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of Zoology 208:1-7.

Cimberg, R.L. and Costa, D.P. 1985. North Aleutian Shelf Sea Otters and their vulnerability to oil. In: Proceedings 1985 Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup) February 1985 Los Angeles, California.

Costa, D.P., Thorson, P.H., Herpolsheimer, J.G., and Croxall, J.P. 1985. Reproductive bioenergetics of the Antarctic Fur Seal. Antarctic Journal of the United States 20: 176-77.

Huntley, A.C., Costa, D.P., and Rubin, R.D. 1984. The contribution of nasal countercurrent heat exchange to water balance in the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal Experimental Biology 113: 447-454.

Ortiz, C.L., LeBoeuf, B.J., and Costa. D.P. 1984. Milk intake of elephant seal pups: an index of parental investment. American Naturalist 124(3):416-421.

Costa, D.P. and Kooyman, G.L. 1984. Contribution of specific dynamic action to heat balance and thermoregulation in the sea otter, Enhydra lutris. Physiological Zoology 57(2):199-203.

Costa, D.P. and Kooyman, G.L. 1982. Oxygen consumption thermoregulation, and the effect of fur oiling and washing on the sea otter, Enhydra lutris. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:2761-2767.

Braham, H.W., Oliver, G.W., Fowler, C., Frost, K., Fay, F., Cowles, C., Costa, D., Schneider, K., and Calkins, D. 1982. Chapter 4. Marine mammals. In: The St. George Basin Environment and Possible Consequences of Planned Offshore Oil and Gas Development, M.J. Hameedi ed., OCSEAP U.S. Dept. Of Commerce: Juneau, Alaska; pp. Pages 55-81.

Kooyman, G.L., Davis, R.W., Croxall, J.P., and Costa, D.P. 1982. Diving depths and energy requirements of King Penguins. Science 217:725-726.

Costa, D.P. and Ortiz. C.L. 1982. Blood chemistry homeostasis during prolonged fasting in the northern elephant seal. American Journal of Physiology 242(11):R591-595.

Costa, D.P. 1982. Energy nitrogen and electrolyte flux and sea water drinking in the sea otter, Enhydra lutris. Physiological Zoology 55(1):35-44.

Kooyman, G.L., Davis, R.A., and Costa, D.P. 1980. Behavior and Energetics of Diving in King Penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus. Antarctic Journal of the United States 15:158.

Nagy, K.A. and Costa, D.P. 1980. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method. American Journal of Physiology 238:R454-465.

Kooyman, G.L., Castellini. M.A., Costa, D.P., Billups, J.O., and Piper, S.C. 1979. Diving characteristics of free-ranging Weddell seals. Antarctic Journal of the United States 14:179.

Kooyman, G.L. and Costa, D.P. 1978. Effects of oiling on thermoregulation in sea otters. NOAA Technical Memorandum, Series ERL OCSEAP-1. D. Wolfe ed., Boulder, Colorado.

Costa, D.P. 1978. The sea otter: its interaction with man. Oceanus 21(2):24-30.

Ortiz, C.L., Costa, D.P., and LeBoeuf, B.J. 1978. Water and energy flux in elephant seal pups fasting under natural conditions. Physiological Zoology 51(2):166-178.

Pearse, J.S., Costa, D.P., Yellin, M.B., and Agegian, C.R. 1977. Localized mass mortality of red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Fisheries Bulletin 75(3):645-647.